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21 Nisan 2015 Salı

Unicorn legend was born in this way






Kazakistan'ın 1500 kadar farklı bölgesinde kaya resimleri var. Tamgalı ise 1957 den beri tanınıyor, 2004 yılında UNESCO Dünya Mirası Listesine eklenmiş. Sadece Tamgalı, bin hektarlık alanda çoğu Bronz Çağı'ndan (MÖ.2500) olmak üzere 20.yüzyılın başlarına kadar, 5binden fazla kaya resimlerini barındırıyor.

Foto: Saka Türk Dönemi -Tamgalı / Yedisu Bölgesi









Atlara takılan boynuzlu başlıklar, halk arasında "tek boynuzlu at" efsanesini doğurmuştur.

Unicorn legend was born in this way....



1500 yıllarında (Dutch Vlaanders) Flanders'ta düğümlenen "Lady and the Unicorn" Halısı'ndan detay
3 Hilalli bayrak kesinlikle Türk etkisinde (Hollanda ve Türkler bkz.)








Like ;  Kentaur/Centaur/Sigitaurus ; or Pegasus

















Turkish peoples and American indians







google tr.from Rus-to Eng.!
 Scientists have discovered a community of Kazakhstan in the work of the Turkic peoples and American Indians

Orientalists Kazakhstan, A comparative study of culture of Turkic peoples and American Indians discovered a surprising commonality in their work. This writes the chief researcher at the Institute of Oriental Studies. R.B.Suleymenova MES RK, Doctor of Historical Sciences in Shaizada Tohtabaeva "Kazakhstan truth" in his article "From the Kazakh Tukum to papaya seed Navajo."

For domestic experts conducted the work is of great interest, primarily because there was a close correlation in the national crafts Kazakhs and American Indians. This relationship seems intriguing and mysterious as two people share a huge space in the form of the ocean, which for ancient man, at first sight, seems insurmountable.

So still originates from (if any) is unity in the work of the Kazakh and Indian peoples? After all, plenty of parallels found, for example, in the woven art Kazakhs and Navajo. Similarity in color, ornamental motifs and compositional decisions knots woven fabrics of the two peoples is truly amazing and impressive. Parallels can be traced to simple and complex elements and motifs patterns, characterized by a certain form and semantic unity. Many parallels in the patterns formed from homogeneous motives and combined logical emphasis in the ornament, and finally in the whole composition of the ornament, including color features.

Genesis of American Indians has long been a matter of interest to the scientific world. According to the research of American scientists from the University of Michigan, the area was settled by American Asian tribes - hunters from southern Siberia in several stages. The migration, on the assumption of historians, takes 70 thousand. BC to 12 thousand. Ancient people, getting to Chukotka, crossed the narrow strait separating Asia from North America, now known as the Bering Strait. This is supported by the outcomes of genetic studies of American Indians and people of South Siberia. This hypothesis considered in the works of Western and Russian scientists, is the increasing development in Kazakhstan researchers who have greatly expanded the question. And, in turn, have put forward a range of justifications affinity American Indians not only with Asia but also Turkic tribes.

During the Soviet years, the famous orientalist Abrar Karimullin wrote that since the seventeenth century until the twentieth century, many scholars have drawn attention to an amazing anthropological, linguistic (language phonetics, speech intonation) similarity Indian tribes Maya, Quechua, with the Sioux and other Turkic ethnic groups. For example, the Swedish orientalist Stig Wikander, stating in 1970 the results of the comparative analysis of the Mayan languages and Turkic peoples, came to the conclusion that they are genetically related. Famous Russian scientist Yuri Knorozov regardless of S. Wikander also established linguistic similarity of the most important, essential concepts of bearing 300 words of Turkic ethnic groups and Mayan Indian.

Striking parallels are observed in the material culture of the American Indians and the Kazakhs. Arts and Crafts of the two nations differ profound originality and expressiveness. Thus the main artistic means life is filled with magical objects traditional folk life, was ornament - a kind of "language" is performed in the past, cognitive, communicative, artistic, aesthetic, magical-religious and other functions. Here is some of the elements of comparative ornament. For example, a triangular motif, correlating with the number three (Ush - Kazakhs; OSH - Maya), represented by three vertical levels: the top - heavenly, middle - and lower earthly - underground. However, in Turkish, and Indian culture triangle was used as a talisman.

If we turn to the ancient cult of the stars, from the space objects in the traditional culture of the Turkic peoples and Native American motifs popular sun, moon, stars, and the Milky Way, Venus, the North Star, the Big Dipper, the Pleiades. Comparative sun signs in the arts and crafts of Turkic peoples and Indians reveals similarities not only fine (in the form of a vortex outlet circle with radiating rays, with the point of the cross in the middle), but also in the name - kun kun and Kazakhs in the Mayan language. I should add that the Kazakhs, and American Indians in the past correlated souls with stars.

In comparing the two peoples traditions prevalent images of leaves, shamrock, flowers, vegetable seeds, which symbolized fertility, eternal renewal and rebirth of life. Seeds in the representation of the Kazakhs and the American Indians, for example, the Navajo were associated with a healthy offspring and fertility. These floral motifs, namely Tukum (in Kazakh - seeds) appear in many jewelry Kazakhs. Curiously, the Navajo in this respect it is preferred melon seeds.

Much in common in the traditional culture of the two nations due to the different animals that are totems of certain tribes and clans that were sealed in folklore and tamgas. In the Kazakh applied arts, in particular, felt and embroidery are often present stylized antlers. In the Indian tradition is also popular image of a deer - a totem of some genera. Deer personified the idea of love, tenderness and kindness, and elk - strength, endurance and freedom. If the applied arts of the Turkic peoples images of wildlife played more often in stylized form, the Indian art (monumental sculpture, rock art) occupies a significant percentage of plays realistic manner.

The most popular application in the works compared peoples have bird images are almost all nations associated with the sky, the sun, the upper world. In the language of the Kazakhs bird called құs and Maya - kosh. In the Indian tradition eagle personified divine power. It is interesting that the principle of the image "mottled" motif, that is, the beak, claws and eyes instead of the whole animal can be traced both in the arts and crafts of the Kazakhs and the Indians.

Designated in the works compared the two nations held a frog, symbolizing fertility. It is interesting that the Kazakhs, and Indians (particularly Maya) frog is called by the same word - baқa.

Among the domestic domain-art motifs, magic values which are clearly manifested in the traditions of the Kazakhs and the Indians, of particular interest are the image of onions, arrows and rush. Their images in ornament products presented as a protection against negative forces. In addition, people in ancient times believed that the bows, arrows and peaks, arranged in a pattern, can contribute to a large, healthy offspring, which, in my opinion, reflects the symbolic layering of these motifs.

Still would like to acknowledge the community in the geometrization of ornamental motifs. Similar, for example, are simple and complex elements in the form of a cross, square, diamond bands, triangles, zigzags, parallelogram. Of Indian art motifs correlate with Kazakh and multistage gear diamond, diamond cross, multi zigzagovidnaya line, bow and arrow, ram's horns, a spider, a bird, and others. Some woven product, such as Navajo Wool Cape leader and Kazakh Peremetnoe scrip (in Kazakh - korzhyn) comparable centric principle of construction of the decor, the character of the central unit, formed from geometric ornamental motifs. It is important to similarity of the compositional ideas: a variety of rhythm through a combination of static and dynamic multi-cross diamond loop is slightly varying, is repeated in the closing frames. In the compared products also echoes flavor - a combination of yellow, black, red and terracotta colors. And similar symbolic interpretation of ornamental motifs. In particular, both compared samples of the cross symbolizes the four cardinal points and at the same time the sun; diamond means fertility, zigzagovidnaya line - a rainbow.

Thus, the comparative analysis of the Indian and Kazakh products of applied art in weaving, jewelery and other forms of folk art allows to establish similarity, and sometimes identical in technology, category, form, semantic content, including in the ornament, which are mostly symbol of ancient cosmology. However, over time some of the motifs, having lost its original meaning, based on new associations have received a new interpretation, later becoming a tradition. All this may reflect different interpretations of common associative thinking on a human scale, or indicate a genetic relationship.



TUVA NEWS, July 27, 2013
google translate from Russia to English:link




Tuva Türkleri, bugün Rusya Federasyonu içerisinde özerk bir cumhuriyet olarak yaşayan bir topluluktur. Cumhuriyetin sınırlarını, batıda Altay Cumhuriyeti, kuzey-batı ve kuzeyde Krasnoyarsk bölgesi ve Hakasya, kuzey-doğuda İrkuts bölgesi ve Buryatya, güneyde ve doğuda ise Moğolistan oluşturmaktadır. Başkent, Kızıl şehridir ve tam iki büyük nehrin (Kaa-Xem ile Bii-Xem) birleşerek “Yenisey” (Ulug-Xem) olduğu yere kurulmuştur. 

Tuva Turks today is a people living in Tuva Republic which is one of the otonom republik of Russia Federation. Tuva Republic lies to west Altai Republic, to the Krasnoyarsk Kray and Republic of Khakassia, Northwest to the Irkutsk Oblast and Buryat Republic, to the east Mongolia. The capital city of Republic is Kyzyl located in the shore of Ulug-Xem “Yenisey” river which combines in two big rivers Kaa-Xem and Bii-xem. 



TURKİSH SAKA PRiNCE AND PRiNCESS



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Turkish Warrior with knot in his horsa tail - İran


Saka Turks period - Mongolia


Turkish Saka period 
Eshkiolmes - Kapchagay, Almaty/Kazakhstan
Eşkiolmes - Kapçagay, Almatı/Kazakistan







Turkic Evidences of Amerind Languages / PDF
by Prof.Dr.Ekrem Arıkoğlu
Kyrgyzistan-Türkiye Manas Üniversitesi

Amerind word, American and Indian words are abbreviated and used to refer to the natives of the first to set foot in America. According to research from the Old World to New World migrations have been three different times. Amerind those who moved to America about 12-15 thousand years ago, those who moved from 5-7 thousand years ago, those who moved from the Na-Dene and Eskimo-Aleut about 1-2 thousand years ago is called. Na-Dene speakers of Sino-Caucasian languages research in the way of their relatives are opinions. Eskimo-Aleutlar both the America and in Asia live in the present. 

Amerind is considered to be of Asian origin, but which does not have precise information on Asian nations were connected. In our country, some of the studies carried out so far may be the American way of links between the American Indians and the Turks are thoughts. According to J. H. Greenberg, developed the theory of Amerind and his followers Ruhlen deeper with each other most of the relatives of American Indians. This view is correct, the Turks are not so many locals are just some of the Native American group of American bonds should be. In this paper, written by Greenberg and Ruhlen "An Amerind Etymological Dictionary" from Turkish words similar to the ones investigated in the work of the words. Matches the sound balance and ask the synonym of words will be doing this. 

Dictionary, Amerind language speakers are also deemed to be 910 words. Some of the small differences in the sound of these words, used by all the Amerind. Ismail Dogan before, "prepared by the Mayans and Turkishness" in the words from the list in the work of 106 words will not be included in this study. The paper will focus on the origins of 28 words we think might  be the same. The first word shape Amerind languages. In parentheses, is the same as we think of Amerind language of Turkish origin provided for. 











Mesoamerican statue and Eastern Anatolian Yürük rug, Turkey, 19th century.
(The term Yörük /Yürük (Youruk) is derived from the Turkish verb "to walk, to march" "yori" (today yürü- walk). And Yörük (+ler) (Youruk+s) are not a different ethnic. 
They are Turkish people.)
















Turkish Culture; Stonefathers Tashbaba (Taşbaba) and Balbal



Ancient culture of the Turks in Central Asia
1- 8th-10th centuries
2- 7th-8th centuries
3- 6th-7th centuries






Almost all the monuments are the work of the "Turkic-speaking nomads"*. They can be divided into several chronological periods. The first period covers the VI-VIII centuries. It includes four exhibits: three are sculptures, and one - a boulder with a schematic representation (Fig. 1, 1-4). All monuments convey the image of a conditional male warrior. Each figure in the right hand is a vessel, left lying on the same blade weapon. The most expressive copies made at a high professional level - the monuments of Kazakhstan (unfortunately, chopped) and Tuva (Grach AD, 1961, pp. 18-19, Fig. 1-3, Table. I.-1 ; Sher JA, 1966, pp. 77-78, Table. II.-9). Images of soldiers ringed earlobes adorned with earrings. Their garments, especially belts, elaborated. On belts hanging sword and dagger, and various bags. The "Kazakh" warrior hair braided in six long braid that tightly strapped on a belt and dissolved terminations. On his chest is a large double diamond simulating large lapels apparel or suspension.

"Tuva" fighter has a short haircut. He very carefully traced the weapon. On his typesetting belt buckle is released, and besides handbags, strap on a separate suspended whetstone (?).

The origin of the monument-boulder unknown. According to the available analogue (Cher JA, 1966, pp. 87-88, Table. VII.-35-36; p. 94-95, Table. XI.-48, pp. 96-97, Table. XII .-52, pp. 98-99, Table. XIV.-60), it could be brought from Eastern Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

For other stages, a limited VII-IX centuries., Include three sculptures (Fig. 1, 5-7). Images of men passed in the form of busts. But one monument, delivered from Kazakhstan, fragmented. Initially, it is most likely is the full sculpture. Of the entire group, only one monument, too, Kazakh, shows a vessel in the form of a bowl on high legs.

Mid IX - beginning of XIII centuries. dates from the columnar monument depicting a man with a large ovoid head (Yevtyukhova LA, 1952, p. 77, Fig. 7. 2; Kubarev, VD, 1984, p. 178, Table. L.-255) ( Fig. 1.-8). The man in the hands clamped vessel resembling a vase. The head is made of solid, hands - in high relief, and crossed his legs transferred depth contour line. Clearly, drawing the legs appeared a little later than the statue itself was made. According to LA Yevtyukhova (1952, p. 77), the monument was brought from the Altai. It is likely that it has transferred in MAE MP Griaznov. Among the publications you can find the exact analogy of the monument - a museum exhibit of Barnaul, stored there in the 1920s - early 1930s. (Appelgren-Kivalo H., 1931, abb. 342; JA Sher, 1966, pp. 117-118, Table. XV.-120). However, judging by the picture, from Barnaul sculpture legs were performed in relief.

Causes considerable difficulties dating last collectibles - slightly processed stone blocks (Fig. 1, 9). One of its parts formed into a round shape, shape resembles a human head. Oval recesses mimic eye sockets and mouth, and raw spaces between them - a straight nose, and possibly lowered mustache. Minor chips give the impression that the master wanted to show neck, beard, as well as the hryvnia. Geographical distribution of the monument is unclear. These monuments are found in Tuva (AN Gerasimov, 1995, p. 128, fig. 2, 5) and the Altai (Yevtyukhova LA, 1952, Fig. 71.-6; Kubarev VD, 1979, p. 12, tab. I; Kubarev VD, 1984, p. 107, Table. III.-19). Monument may be treated as the late Bronze Age and the Middle Ages.

This brief review of the ancient sculptures stored in MAE shows that, despite the small amount of collections and bad attribution, it includes interesting material on monumental art nomads, and several monuments are true masterpieces.

Collection of ancient sculptures of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography in St. Petersburg began to take shape in 1910. The first exhibits were "stone woman", delivered VI Kamensky from Kazakhstan. How many were brought monuments, remains unclear. After more than half a century in the description of these monuments YA Cher on the basis of handwriting "Report on the excavations in East Kazakhstan" VI Kamensky said six statues (Cher JA, 1966, pp. 77-80, 96, 99, 105-106). To date, the "Report" lost, and collectible inventory drawn up when entering "women" are mentioned only three sculptures.

In 1930-1940-ies., As can be inferred from Article LA Yevtyukhova, MAE were brought two monuments from Siberia. One of them, who came from the Altai, now missing (Yevtyukhova LA, 1952, pp. 76-77, Fig. 7.-1).

In 1954 AD Rook brought from Tuva fragment of the monument - a man's head (Grach AD, 1955, Fig. 13; Grach AD, 1961, p. 35, Fig. 50, Table. I.-28). Detect it also failed. Perhaps fragment was lost in the process of research of AD Rook, as stored in the archive of his receipt of the receipt of the subject, but there are no marks on the return.

In the 2nd half of the 1950s. from Tuva, according to LP Potapov, the museum received a further eight sites. These included statues and stelae "with runic Turkic texts" (LP Potapov, 1959, p. 117). However, trading card temporary storage is fixed to one more statue, and in the act of admission to the permanent storage of only four statues appear without steles.

Thus, if you do not take into account the possible inaccuracy of certain information to the top of the 1970s. MAE could be 18 sculptures and four stelae. All meeting has been attributed to the different departments (Department of Archaeology, Department of Siberia). Some of the exhibits were stored in the cellars, the other - in the depositories, and two monuments decorated staircase Museum, leading to the hall with the exhibition "The Descent of Man, and the main stages in the development of primitive society."

Over time, due to a lack of free space museum cellars were used as storage space and room household workers. Monuments began to move uncontrollably. Many sculptures were littered with building materials. Pedestals "ceremonial" dilapidated copies, from which statues, losing stability, have become a serious threat to staff and visitors and were removed in the lobby and under the stairs.

It should be recognized that it is the last quarter of XX century. became a turning point for this meeting. The collection will have a devastating impact: many of the exhibits were depasportizovany, and some just lost.

Currently, the Museum recorded only nine sculptures. They have been translated into a separate fund and constitute a single collection (coll. №7296).

Ed. AA Tishkina. 
Ancient and medieval nomads of Central Asia
Stone sculptures, page 16
под ред. А.А. Тишкина. 
Древние и средневековые кочевники Центральной Азии
Каменные изваяния


* "Turkic speaking" if they speak "Turkic" they are "Turkish".
* "Nomads" Who established a STATE ... :)

"When the Orkhun Monuments were erected, there was no French or German State"
Prof.Dr.Ahmet Taşağıl








"A land where almost intact is rich in ancient Turkic heritage, - is part of the Chinese Altai. But recently, as reported by local historians, and here there was a great danger for the preservation of many historical and cultural monuments and complexes, including, for the ancient Turkic stone sculptures. Firstly, the thriving local industry, and agriculture, to explore new lands and therefore destroyed the ancient monuments. Secondly, the ancient stones ripped from their nests in which they stood for centuries, transport them to centers in various district and regional museums. If the trend continues, in a few years will already be hard to find among the mountains and gorges ancient stones balbals. But in those areas where there are many Kazakhs, ancient monuments preserve and protect. "






6.yy-10.yy


Köktürk yazısı ile







Hayat Çiçeği-Zambak










Sarmatians are the children of Scythians and Amazons (Amazons called themselves Oirpata/Oerpata = Scythian Turkish language Er-Man ; Pata-Kill "Man Killer" )

In the middle of the 19 c. the Russian historians and geographers were convinced that Scythians were Türkic speaking. So, R. Latama wrote in 1854 in the Bulletin of Russian geographical society: ‘The Türkic origin of the Scythians now days... does not require any special proofs’ [Latama R., 1854, 45].

Scythians and Sarmatians, whose ethnonym for Greeks became a general political name, are Türkic speaking people. Also Massagets (Tissagets, Thissagets) 
and Ephtalites (White Huns )  are Türkic speaking people.

Among Sarmatians in the end of the 1 c. BC are Aorses, ethnonym of which ascends to Auar-Avar with the Greek ending -s, -os. 
Later, Auars-Avars are a known Türkic ethnos.

The other name for Ases was Alan. As relayed by ancient authors, Alans spoke Türkic-Kangar language, the ethnonymic data also supports that they were Türkic speaking 

Mirfatykh Z. ZAKIEV
TATARS: PROBLEMS of the HISTORY and LANGUAGE
Collection of articles on problems of lingohistory, revival and development of the Tatar nation. Kazan, 1995 - link
and Polonya link  /  link  /  link


37. Bronze buckle decorated with openwork tamgas, from Kerch-Panticapaeum. British Museum.
38. Stone boulder from Krivoy Rog Ukraine, with engraved on it tamgas belonging to different periods. Archaeology Museum, Odessa.
39. A small bronze mirror with tamga cast on the reverse side. Steppe regions of the Northern Black Sea. Museum of Prehistory and early historical period, Berlin.
40. A large bronze cauldron from the area between the Don and Donets with a cast on it Tamga. Historical Museum, Moscow.



AK HUN (EFTALİT) - White Huns/Hephthalite Turkish Empire.
Kase , MS.5. -6.yy - Bowl, 5th-6th c AD
Pakistan'da bulunmuş  - British Müzesinde

Etrüsk Vazosunda Part atışı yapan bir Amazon
yani Oerpata- Er Öldüren

ETHNOGRAPHICAL - TURANIAN CHARACTER OF THE PARTHIAN PEOPLE 
GEORGE RAWLINSON book
ve
Büyük “Part” Türk Devletini Kuran Atalarımız (M.Ö. 247-M.S. 224) 
Our Ancestors Who Build the Great Parthia Turkish State (247 BC-224 AD)-Begmyrat Gerey pdf



















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TÜRKLERİN İZİNDEN - ALTAY







ANT TAMGASI - Barış Simgesi




Saka/İskit Türk dönemine ait törensel Kazan. MÖ.4.yy-2.yy. 

Yaloman Platosu Altay'da bulunmuş, Demir Çağı'ndan Hun dönemine kadar kurganlarıyla dolu, kutsal bir yer. İçinde pişirilen etli yemeğin "kansız kurban" olarak kurganlar bölgesinde bırakıldığı varsayılıyor. Üzerinde çizgili kaplan-leopar olduğu söyleniyor, ama toynakları var sanki, bu yüzden de at olabilir. 
Atlar da kurban olarak sunuluyor ve yeniliyordu.

Yaloman II ise MÖ.2.yy-1.yy Hun Türk dönemi
LİNK   /    LİNK    / Kansız Kurban






Katun Nehrinin aktığı bölgede Yaloman Kurganları - Altay.

Yaloman Kurgans, where the Katun river flows - Altai.
Katun- Etymology Turkish; empress, wife of Hakan (Khagan).
She was trained as a statesman, sits always next to Hakan, had every rights to make when Hakan was gone, and fulfill its duties.



Geyik Taşı - Altay 
Turkish "Deer stone" (3-2 thousand years old)
Barnaul Museum - Altai.



Hun Türk dönemi-MÖ.2.yy-1.yy
Yaloman II  - Altay Müze link:





Altay - Saka Türk Dönemi Kaya Resimleri ve Kurganları için link







Altın Adam diye adlandırılan kişinin bir Prenses olduğu söylenir.











Ancient Turkish Stonefathers / Taşbaba - Altai Museum

One of the largest groups of ancient Turkish statues (VII -IX cc.) are in the mountain-steppe of 
Central Asia; modern Mongolia, Tuva, Altai, Xinjiang, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.


Complex on the river. Har-Pit in the Mongolian Altai on the device and the design is undoubtedly related to the memorial structures of ancient Turkic nobility. Only a few unusual sculpture. This scene made in the bottom of the statues. It depicted two figures admiration of people holding the reins of horses. The upper figure also holds a bow and quiver. The scene is clearly reminiscent of the paintings on the boulder Kudyrge (Altai), statuesque Mugur-Sargol and Kargy (Tuva). Compositional structure comparable scenes, characters, and similar attributes, technique drawings - all this together - evidence of semantic proximity memorials found in various regions of Central Asia.



From Afyon  Stone Ram  - Turkish Culture



from Azarbaijan




This sculpture is made of massive blocks of reddish sandstone. Length sculpture 1.05 m, width 0.45 m, height 0.6 m. Baran sculpted in lying posture, with bent legs. The front legs bent at the knee joints and hooves pursed ago, under the belly, hind legs bent under the belly, hooves forward. Neck and head stretched forward (Fig. I, 1, 2). Such a position is characteristic of the sculptures of rams on the monuments of ancient Turkic nobility in Mongolia and Minusinsk Basin.

The greatest similarity is observed between the sculptures of the museum of Barnaul, Abakan steppe and Shibetu Ulaan. [36] The head of Barnaul ram badly damaged. Chipped front of the muzzle, chipped horn. But still can be seen that the horns were located on both sides of the head in the form of low ridges, forming not closed circle. On the neck of the ram is a thick coat, slanting stripes on both sides (Fig. I, 3). Such manner is not repeated in other sculptures. The back shows a short tail (Fig. I, 4). 
Horns and tail Barnaul ram shown as a Ram from Abakan steppe and Shiveet Ulaan. 

Thus, according to stylistic features ram sculpture from Barnaul museum should be among the statues, memorial complexes characteristic of ancient Turkic nobility, were constructed in the period of the Second Eastern Turk Empire. This adds an interesting monument known information on the distribution of the territory 
of the Altai Mountains memorial structures noble Turks.

AY Borisenko, YS Khudyakov
Stone sculpture sheep from Barnaul Museum.
Monuments of Ancient Culture in the Sayano-Altai and Central Asia. Novosibirsk, 2000 (google translate from Russia to English from the book.)



from Armenia, not Armenian Culture but Turkish!





















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