27 Ekim 2015 Salı

Kipchak Cuman Turks in Europe and Codex Cumanicus

Codex Cumanicus - 1362
Worth a priceless treasure in the history research, especially for Kipchak Turkish and North-West Turkish dialects.

Codex Cumnaicus is written probably between the years 1303-1362 , by Franciscan Italian and German missionaries who lived down by the Volga (İdil) river. It is Kipchak Turkish-German dictionary, text, grammer, word lists of Kipchak (Cuman) Turkish, Latin, Persian.

Codex Cumanicus was by the collector Petrach as a gift given to Republic of Venice, and took place in Venice Cathedral Library collection. The single copy is kept today in St.Marcus Monastry Library.

Codex Cumanicus consists two main parts:

First chapter, July 11, 1303, Latin, Persian, Cuman (Kipchak Turkish) dictionary and grammar rules, there are various words about the social and economic life. This part of the work has the influence of Italian than Latin, was written by Italians, and they named this section as Italian Codex.

In the second part: Text, units and puzzles about Christianity in Cuman (Kipchak Turkish) . At the beginning Cuman-Latin, Cuman-German dictionary. This section is called the German Codex. Because of the many religion texts, many Turcologist believe that this section was written by German Franciscan missionaries, for Christianization of the Cuman Kipchak Turks.

İn Hungarian "KUUN-KUN" means CUMAN.

A Kun Miatyánk
„Bezen attamaz kenze kikte
szen lészen szen adon
dösön szen küklön
nitziengen gerde ali kikte
bezen akomezne oknemezne
bergezge pitbütör küngön
ill bezen menemezne
neszen bezde jermez
berge utrogergene
illme bezne algyamanna
kutkor bezne algyamanna
szen börsön boka csalli
batson igye tengria.

Szappanos Lukácstól lejegyezte Baski Imre, Kunszentmiklós, 1968
A kunszentmiklósi helyenként kiigazított változat

"Bezén attamaz kenze kikte
szenlészen szen adon
dösön szen küklön
niciegen gerde, ali kikte
bezen akomezne oknemezne
bergezge pitbütör küngön
ill bezen menemezne
neszen bezde jermez
bezge utrogergene
illme bezne al gyamanna
kutkor bezne al gyamanna
szen börsön bo kacsalli
bo cson igye tengere.

"Babamız Kun"
bizim atamiz kim-szing kökte
szentlenszing szening ading
düs-szün szening könglügüng
necsik-kim dzserde alaj kökte
bizing ekmegimizni ber bizge büt-bütün künde
ilt bizing minimizni
necsik-kim biz ijermiz bizge ötrü kelgenge
iltme bizni ol dzsamanga
kutkar bizni ol dzsamannan
szen barszing bu kücsli
bu csin ijgi tengri amen.

in todays Turkish:
Bizim Atamız ki sensin gökte
Aziz olsun senin adın
Hoş olsun senin gönlün
Nasıl ki hem yerde hem bütün gökte
Bizim ekmeğimizi ver bize bütün günler
İlet bizim aklımızı
Nasıl ki boyun eğeriz bize (emir) gelince
İletme bizi hiç kötülüğe
Kurtar bizi her kötülükten
Sen varsın bu güçte bu yücelikte Tengrim

Mándoky Kongur István
Stephen Mándoky Kongur ( Karcag,1944 - Kengsza,1992 ) 
(Hungarian turcologist, Kipchak Turkish ethnic)

Murad Adji
KIPCHAKS and OGUZES - link to read
Medieval History of the Türkic People and the Great Steppe


Kipchaks and Cross

The story of Jean de Joinville the funeral of a noble Cumana

In the "Book of pious sayings and good deeds of our St. Louis," written in 1309 Seneschal of Champagne Jean de Joinville (1225-1317), there are two episodes on Kumans [1]. Joinville tells them the words of the knight Philippe de Tusi, who had returned from Constantinople to Caesarea (Palestine), where in May 1251 on May 1252 remained free from Muslim captivity King Louis IX [Le Goff, 2001: 148-153, 156-157] . In one of them said on the conclusion of the last emperor of the Latin Empire Baudouin II alliance with Kumans directed against the emperor of Nicaea John III Vatatzes, and reported interesting details which completed a joint agreement oath Latins and Cumans. In another episode, he described in detail the funeral of a noble Cumana, which became an eyewitness said French knight during his stay in the Polovtsian horde.

 Baudouin II is not less than twice the Polovtsy entered into alliances against Vatatzes. The first time it happened in 1239, when Baldwin was going with his troops from Europe to Constantinople, through Hungary and Bulgaria [George Acropolita, § 36: 218, n. 482]. The contract, reported by Joinville, most likely, was imprisoned in the late 40's or early 50's of the XIII century. When Philippe de Tusi twice (1247 and 1251) was a regent of the Latin Empire [Larks, 2000: 82] . The fact that in this case it is not an agreement with Kumans 1239, shows, in particular, references to Constantinople as the starting point of the route of the Embassy of the Latins.

 It seems that the events described Joinville, occurred in the vicinity of the capital of the Latin Empire, as to the point in question, the land of this state is so reduced that includes only Constantinople itself and its surroundings. Probably, this circumstance meant F.I.Uspensky when in his fundamental work on the history of the Byzantine Empire found it possible to write that the city's population, "observed the spectacle of the funeral feast and slaughter his slaves (" Cuman knight. "- JG) grave outside the walls "[Assumption, 1997: 380-381], although no details of the source. F.I.Uspensky also states that "the regent de Tusi" was married to the "daughter of the Polovtsian prince" and attended the funeral of his father, what, in principle, there is nothing incredible, but it is unclear from the information gleaned.

 It should be noted that the "Cuman Passage" Joinville always attracts the attention of historians, mainly of Byzantine and medievalists. Description funeral Koeman is well known Turkologist [Sinor, 1954: 316]. Peter Golden have important parallels to some elements of the funeral ritual mentioned in the story of Philippe de Tusi [Golden, 1998: 195-196]. However, it is very laconic comment that, in my opinion, does not correspond to the potential opportunities informative source. Despite the abundance of archaeological connotations, the description of the funeral of a noble Koeman still virtually avoided by all national experts of Late antiquity. This was probably due to the absence of the Russian translation of the book by Jean de Joinville. Today this obstacle removed [Jean de Joinville, 2007: § 497-498]:

 In addition, he (Philippe de Tusi. - Yu) told us about the great curiosities he had seen during their stay in the army when he died a noble knight, he dug into the ground and a huge wide grave, sat him on a chair and preblagorodno decorated; and it put the best horse, which he had, and the best of his warrior alive. Warrior before it was lowered into the grave with his lord, bade farewell to the King of the Cumans and the other noble lords; and as he said goodbye to them in his bag sprinkled a lot of gold and silver, and said to him: "When I come to the other world, you will return to me what I give you." And he answered: "I have performed this very willingly."

 Great King Kumans handed him a message addressed to their first king, in which he said that this worthy man lived a very worthy and well-served to him and asked the king to reward the warrior for his service. When this was done, they were lowered into the pit of a warrior with his lord and live horse; and then close the opening graves tightly whipped boards, and all the army struck the rocks and earth; and before going to bed, they were in memory of those buried, was built over them a high hill.

 Referring to the component of the story of the episode of the funeral, each of which corresponds to a specific item or several items of the funeral ritual. Our task is to find the historical, ethnographic and archaeological parallels this ritual elements. Such a study, on the one hand, will assess the reliability of the story of Philip de Tusi, and the other - will help to identify some aspects of the funeral rites Polovtsian caught outside the usual habitat in the era of the Crusades, and the last of the Mongol expansion.

 ... when he died a noble knight, he dug in the ground and a huge wide grave ...

 Of course, the expression "a huge and broad grave" may surprise some to pass Philippe de Tusi about a few of the large graves in comparison with known him Christian burial. Yet burial construction, destined for the noble Polovtsian which probably added a considerable number of things, his servant alive and vibrant horse had to be large enough. Indeed, some graves Polovtsian nobles are quite large. Thus, the pit shoulders Chingulskogo mound of the second third of the XIII century. (Zaporozhye), in which, apparently, was buried in one of the Polovtsian khans (Tigaki?) At the top had the dimensions 4.35 x 2.1 m and a depth of 5 m [Otroshenko-Rassamakgn, 1986: 18, fig. 3]. However, chingulskoe burial is a rare exception: the vast majority of the Polovtsian graves inferior to him in size [Atavin, 2008: 88-89].

 ... put him on a chair and preblagorodno decorated ...

 This phrase could be interpreted so, that noble Cumana buried sitting as hereinafter does not say that, before you put it in the grave, he was removed from his chair. However, as far as I know, sitting practically marked burial archaeologists Polovtsian neither one nor the other Turkic-speaking nomads of Eurasia Middle Ages. What, then, he told his king Philippe de Tusi?

 The Chinese dynastic chronicles "Zhou PSU" containing information on the burial and funeral rites of Turkic nobility during the First Turkic khanate, says: "When one of them dies, the body is placed on a hill in a yurt ...". S.G.Klyashtorny and D.G.Savinov, outlining the cultural, historical and archaeological context of the message (data "Wei Shu" on the graves tiele people (Uighurs) standing [2] with a bow in the hands of "nezasypannyh graves"; tesinskie "head" - Tashtyk mask - medieval stone sculptures), came to two interesting conclusions. First, the ancient Turks, apparently, there was a tradition to use for ritual purposes "dummy" or body of the deceased, which is not so much to "put" (exhibited in the supine position) as "shrinks" in specially designated religious premises . Secondly, there is a definite connection between this tradition and custom manufacture of stone images of the dead and honor them [Klyashtorny Savina, 2005: 238-239].

 In order to develop this productive ideas, can point to some Turkic and Mongolian matching custom sitting dead body. First of all turn to the medieval written sources.

 Arab diplomats X century. Ibn Fadlan thus tells the story of post-mortem rites Turki-Oguz on the Volga, "If a man die of their [number], then it will dig a big hole in the form of home, take it, will put on him by his jacket, his belt, his bow ... and put them in his hand a wooden cup with nabizom will leave in front of him a wooden vessel with nabizom will bring everything he has and put him in the house. Then put him (hereinafter italics mine. - JG) in it, and the house over them and cover the deck above him nakladut something like a dome of clay. [Then] take his horses depending on their number killed one hundred heads, or two hundred heads, or one head and eat their meat, except for the head, legs and tail skin. And, really, they stretch [all] it on wooden structures and say, 'This is his horse, on which he will go to heaven. "If he ever killed a man and was brave, that [they] cut down the image of wood by the number of those he killed, put them on his grave and say, "Here is the young men who would serve him in paradise" "[Kovalevsky, 1956: 128].

 In the composition of the papal nuncio John de Plano Carpini describes the rites of burial militarily significant groups: foremen, centurions, thousanders and noyans in the service of the Mongol Khan [Yurchenko, 2008: 290]. According to him, the burial of junior officers was as follows: "And when he [already] dead, [that] if he is from the less important people buried him secretly in the desert where they decide. And buried it along with one of the houses, sitting in the midst of it, and give it to him [low] table and a small box full of pieces of meat and a bowl of mare's milk »[LTIII. 12]; Wed. the parallel passage from the report of Benedict the Pole: "If you die rich, he secretly buried in a field with his yurt, sitting in it, and with the [wooden] trough full of meat, and a bowl of mare's milk" [HT § 45].

 Since, as already emphasized, we have no archaeological evidence of burials in the pose of "sitting", suggests that Ibn Fadlan describes not a funeral, but the beginning of a ceremony that preceded the funeral and was basically limited to a period of relative preservation of the body. Provided the content remains in a special place and maybe use some tricks that prevent decomposition, this ceremony could probably be extended.

 Something similar has been done after the death of a noble Nordic viking funeral is also described Ibn Fadlan. While they were preparing for the burning of the dead in his ship, the body wrapped in a blanket, was laid in "grave", which was placed as "nabiz, some fruit and a lute." "Tomb" blocked wood flooring, over which was sprinkled on the ground. After 10 days, "Grave" was opened, the deceased and the accompanying items recovered from it. From the corpse, he adds Ibn Fadlan, not smelled and he just "went black from the cold of this country" [Kovalevsky, 1956: 143-144]. It is curious that while Arab diplomat in this case clearly distinguishes separated short time predpogrebalny and funeral rites in respect of underground storage body, he used the word "grave". It also suggests that similarly arranged "grave" Turk-Oguz actually also is a temporary repository for the dead body, which could be made available for carrying out the rituals.

More difficult to understand whether different informants Franciscan burial ritual status of the individual ritual preceding the funeral. Burial of the dead (and even in a sitting position) in a portable housing (yurt, tent, etc.) have been recorded ethnographic Turkic and Mongolian peoples [Galdanova, 1987: 46, 64], as well as the peoples of Siberia [Family, 1980: 115 , 135, 224; Grachev, 1983: 107, 123-124]. However, in my opinion, can not be entirely ruled out that informants Franciscans mistakenly called a temporary dead body sitting in a yurt funeral. However, regardless of whether this action is part of funeral rites or predpogrsbalnyh, its presence and importance in the context of post-mortem ritual Mongols XIII century. can not be questioned.

 In connection with the discussed topic is of interest to one of the episodes of the Kyrgyz epic "Manas" (series "Funeral for Koksteyu") in translation and S.Lipkina L.Penkovskogo. Dying Koketey asks his son not to take the following actions: "My body oskrebya sword / Fresh rinsed his mare's milk, / Water zamzanskoy sprinkling; / Subtlest white linen / throwing his corpse my carefully; / Washing ritual / nobles entrusted; / The zlatotkannuyu brocade / The red velvet clothed me, / Battle damask sword / I on wearing a loins; / Pious elderly / Instructing my dead body guard; / Singers hired punishing / Immensely praise me; / Kin surrounded, / As if I stayed I / between people living alive / gilt throne on me / With honors seated; / Many days were not buried / Truth likening lie ... "etc. [Manas, 1960: 48-49]. (In the academic translation of this episode, instead of "gilded throne" featured "golden box", which is placed with honor richly decorated body of the hero [Manas, 1990: 251]).

 We emphasize that the sitting / installation late - one of the universals of human ritual. In ancient Rome, the noble dead body in a sitting position imposed on a forum for pronouncing a panegyric on them [Kuznetsov 1906: 107]. Even in the nineteenth century in Europe, in a similar way to bury royals, and in Russia - the hierarchy of the Orthodox Church [Kuznetsov, 1906: 115-116]. Describing the ritual burning of a boat in a noble Virus (Scandinavian Vikings) on the Volga in 922, a witness of what is happening Ahmad Ibn Fadlan mentions that the deceased was seated on a bench, covered with mattresses, brocade, and is backed by pillows [Kovalevsky, 1956: 144].

 In Tibet, the death of the Dalai Lama, a great man or saint his body in a special way (without dissection) embalmed, making of it a mummy, stuffed with silk and fastened with lacquer, then dried in a special oven, re-varnished and coated with thin strips of gold, whereupon He exhibited at the tomb, sitting in the lotus position [Smirnov, 1997: 58-59, 105]. Similar rituals exist and Mongolian Lamaism. Body hubilganov (reincarnations of famous lamas), before burning to betray, seated in prayer and embalmed. After three weeks or a month of in the same position they take out on a stretcher to the cremation ground and burn. There is another kind of "funeral" hubilganov when the mummified body (fumbled) decorated with gold leaf, painted face, and placed in a joss is the subject of veneration [Pozdneev, 1993: 272-275].

 In the New World of the Incas embalmed and dressed the body of kings sat on golden chairs in front of the image of the Sun in the temple Cosco, and they were brought numerous victims [Smirnov, 1997: 59]. Sitting and installation of mummies, bone remains of the deceased were very common in the memorial and funeral rites Polynesians [Fedorov, 1995: 155-166]. Some peoples of the Philippines late after hoisting the mourning on the "chair of death" - a structure reminiscent of a normal chair, but with two legs. She leans back to the pile (the wall) home or digged into the ground. The body is at the "chair" as much time as determined by the wealth and social status of the deceased. Then it is removed, put in a coffin and buried in the ground or cave, considered the abode of ancestral spirits [Pochagina, 1986: 112-114]. [3]

 To summarize. In the light of comparative data analyzed detailed story of the French knight, apparently, it indicates the presence of Cuman nobility in the Balkans predpogrebalpogo archaic ritual, dating back to the era of ancient Turkic and include as part of the parade dressed sitting on a dead body. Perhaps ritual usually probably longer, it has been reduced under the influence of some extraordinary situation in nomadic horde (see. Below) or Philippe de Tusi saw only its completion.

 We can assume the existence of such a ritual practice and Polovtsian inhabiting the Black Sea, the Volga and the Don-Ciscaucasian steppe. In this regard, we call attention to the Polovtsian anthropomorphic statues made of stone or wood, representing richly dressed male and female figures. As it turned out, these sculptures are more or less realistically depict specific dead as heroes, or mythical ancestors [Pletnev, 1974: 73-76; Gurkin, 1987: 108; Ermolenko, 1994: 160-163; Ermolenko, 2004: 65-67; Gugu-Miroshin 2002: 57]. More A.N.Veselovsky expressed the idea that the pedestals have seated and some standing Polovtsian statues southern Russia played "stools" [Veselovsky 1915: 432]. Subsequently, it was completely forgotten. However, ignoring this guess A.N.Veselovskogo can not understand why the front side of the pedestal most statues has a "step", and the podium in some cases, "decorated" the back and sides "notches", "square", "crosspiece" [Pletnev, 1974 Cat. Number 122, 250, 1067, 1156, 1163, 1286, 1313]. It is also unclear and frequent continuation of the pedestal top, forming the sides of the figure from the waist up so-called background. Ukrainian researcher L.S.Geraskova correctly noted that the background can not be treated purely technologically, as its sample cutter hampered the process of making monuments, and, therefore, this feature had pictorial meaning [Geraskova 1991: 38, 82-83]. Finally, you can remember Dariganga sculptures that are likely to XIII-XIV centuries. and depict the Mongols and the Mongol nobles, seated on folding chairs (Chin. huchuan - "barbaric seat") [Bayar, 1985: 156-158].

[1] In domestic and foreign historical and archaeological literature generally accepted identified Kumans Polovtsy Russian chronicles, as the latter is considered the western branch of Kipchak. A different view is held S.G.Klyashtorny, believing that they are different tribal groups. According to him, in the centuries XT-XIII. Kipchaks continued to occupy land between the Irtysh and the Caspian Sea, and the Polovtsian-Cuman conglomerate of tribes settled in the European steppe; Polovtsi while anchored on the southern borders of Kievan Rus and kumamy moved further west [Kljashtornyj, 1997: 151-153; Klyashtorny Sultana, 2000: 108-128; Kljashtornyj, 2005: 243-247; Klyashtorny Savina, 2005: 125-134, 136-142]. S.G.Klyashtornogo The argument based on the identification in the Muslim, Chinese, Russian and western written sources equivalent ethnonyms, very convincing. Nevertheless, in the present paper this writer uses the word "Cumans" and "Cumans" interchangeably because there is a certain probability that the nomads, who came to the embassy of the Latins, were from the hordes Kotyan (See below.). It should be noted another aspect of the problem: those ethnic discrimination, which historians rightly removed from the texts of ancient and medieval authors, often not so obvious at the level of the archeology. As far as I know, yet none of the archaeologists, at least domestic, did not try to somehow distinguish between Kuman Kuman and monuments.

[2] The authors used the translation N.Ya.Bichurina. V.S.Taskin translated chronicles of this place because: "During the funeral for the dead dig a hole, put in carrying the corpse, straighten arms, inserted in them extended onion, surround the dead sword under his arm and clamped spear, doing everything as if a living corpse , pit not fall asleep "[Materials, 1984: 402].

[3] Throughout entrenched in the ritual of sitting on a dead body, or installing it in an upright position are under a very clear psychological foundations. Sit or stand - the prerogative of the living. That's why giving the deceased a position is one of the "archetypal" ways "to overcome death." It is significant that even in modern society, a European-style he sometimes spontaneously reproduced outside (despite) the authority of the church consecrated a formal funeral ceremony [Ares, 1992: 325; Vertinsky, 1991: 262-264].

[4] For example, sitting on a dead Turk-Oguz, investing in his hand a cup nabizom and Ancient memorial statue representing a seated man with a cup in hand, etc. In general, the relationship between predpogrebalnymi ritual manipulation of the body and the various forms of images of the deceased is quite obvious and can be traced everywhere from Europe to the islands of Polynesia. It was shown that the rite could determine the iconography of the posthumous sculpture [Kuznetsov 1906: 105- 118; Fedorov, 1995: 165-166] and, in turn, subjected to a reverse influence on the part of [Ares, 1992: 168-171, 208-254]. Yes, and the custom to make the image of the deceased ("dummy" doll idol, mask, statue and others.) Occurs as a rule, where it was decided to use the body or its parts as the seat of the soul of the deceased (parent) and were distributed embalming and mummification. The boundary beyond which terminates the procedure aimed at the preservation of the remains, and begin creating your own posthumous sculpture, often elusive. So, on the "dummy" dead could put it on a real "simulated" skull in a clay statue to add cremated or comminuted bones, in a metal - to invest reliquary with bones or body parts, etc. [Fedorov, 1995: 153-154, 159; Nikitin, 1982: 251, 290-291; Gerasimov, 1989: 119; Vadetskaya, 1999: 93-103 et al.]. A classic example of a nomadic society, whose posthumous rituals developed along similar standard way (+ embalming sculpture) is an Eastern Scythians [Herodotus TV. 70-73, n. 436, 437 (pp. 309-310); Olkhovskiy-Yevdokimov, 1994]. By the way, recently received a rare archaeological evidence of attempts to mummification of the body and the preservation of skeletal remains from the late nomads [Kiyashko-Sergatskov-Yavorskaya 2005: 342; Matyushko 2008: 141-156], and it is consistent with the fact that they have a commemorative sculpture.

[5] From work to work [Gorodtsov 1907: 250-261; Fedorov-Davydov, 1966: 192-193; Pletnev, 1974: 73; Gurkin, 1987: 106-107] becomes erroneous assertion that human sacrifice took place in the sanctuary at the beam average Ayula on the left bank of the Manych, where more than 100 years ago in the mound Don ethnographer I.M.Sulin found a hole with four wooden Polovtsian statues near which were the skull of the dog, the sheep, and the skeleton of a child. However, promising on the situation of children's skeleton (stretched on his back, head to the north, hands folded on his chest) and save it with the things, in particular beads of Egyptian paste [Gorodtsov 1907: 250], it Sarmatian burial. Availability under the embankment next to him Polovtsian svyatilisha-pit - a pure accident.

[6] I am grateful V.Ya.Petruhinu Sciences, who drew my attention to it. from russian language google translate

At Europe's Borders: Medieval Towns in the Romanian Principalities 
By Laurențiu Rădvan

The roots of Balkanization - Hungarian Cuman king
author, historian, educator, and philosopher/Romania

Ion Grumeza

István Vásáry

krimicae, nogaicae, kazanicae, baskiricae, kirgizicae = turcicarum

"ubique eandem indolem hujus linguae turcicam conspricimus"
"Everywhere we see the same qualities of the Turkish language"

Scthas / Scythians are Turkish speaking Turkish Tribe

Massagetis + Parthi = Turci
Temerinda - Karbaluk

Cuman Turks in Hungary

A Cuman Turk King

Kipchaks Turkish Tashbaba (Taşbaba/Taşnine)

"Biz qıpçaq soyundanıq ! Qumuqların, qaraçaylıların, kazakların, balkarların, qaqauzların, krım tatarlarının, həmçinin rusların və ukraynalıların bir hissəsinin soyağacından." 
Murad Adji Kitap Rusça

"I will bring here is not about Russia but about "the Great Steppe" about my home Dasht-i-Kipchak, now unknown country, which lived Polovtsi-Turki." 
Murat Acıyev - Turcolog e-book in Russian language

"Я поведу здесь речь не о Руси, а о «Великой Степи», о моем родном Дешт-и-Кипчаке, неизвестной ныне стране, в которой жили половцы-тюрки. "

Murad ADJI

An Ancient History of the Turkic People and the Great Steppe
A Handbook for Schoolchildren and Their Parents

This book is about the Turkic people, from its rise in the Altai Mountains and its spillover to the rest of the Eurasian continent. The touching narrative and thrilling legends relate about little-known facts of world history and the life as it really was for the ancient Turkis, their contribution to human civilization, their victories and setbacks. Nothing like this book has ever been published anywhere around the world.

An inscription in ancient Turkic in an Armenian church says, for example, "Accept this gift for the monastic brotherhood." It ends with the donor's tamgha.
This gift was given, among other donations, by the Turkis to the Armenian people about seventeen hundred years ago to celebrate the Armenians' admission to the new faith. A short phrase, it speaks much about the peoples' destinies. A stone block in another church, near the chapel dedicated to Vachagan III the Blessed, bears a mason's engraving of a horseman wearing a priest's clothing. He sat on his horse in a Turkic fashion, straight up, his legs down without stirrups.
Another puzzle to be unravelled? No, if we know that priests never used stirrups riding in the steppe. Simply, they were not allowed to use them, the stirrups being a prerogative of warriors.
November 10, 326, was a day for celebrations in Armenia - the Tengri Cross was raised on that day over Europe's first few churches. From that day on the Armenian people have been loyal to their newly acquired faith and the liberation mission of their cross.
The Holy Cross feast has always been a joyous occasion for celebrations in Armenia, for it was a turning point in its history. And right were the Armenians calling St. Gregory the Illuminator, head of the Armenian Church, a Saint - he actually showed the road to the Turkis to his grandson and his people. St. Gregory departed from Derbent riding a royal chariot under a cavalry convoy - he was carrying with him an equal-armed cross, a sacred symbol and sign of a new Europe, from the Turkic world.

more to read in English
Murad ADJi
An Ancient History of the Turkic People and the Great Steppe

Turks and Religions - Kipchaks

European Kipchaks

Murad ADZHI (Deutsch)
Die Kiptschak
Geschichte des Altertums des Turkvolkes und der Großen Steppe

Adzhi Murad.(Espanol)
El secreto de San Jorge o lo regalado por Tengri 
(de la herencia espiritual del pueblo turcomano)

İn Russian

Аджиев Мурад. Мы – из рода половецкого! Из родословной кумыков, карачаевцев, казаков, балкарцев, гагаузов, крымских татар, а также части русских и украинцев.

Аджи Мурад. Полынь Половецкого поля: Из родословной кумыков, карачаевцев, балкарцев, казаков, казахов, татар, чувашей, якутов, гагаузов, крымских татар, части русских, украинцев и других народов, ведущих свое начало от тюркского (кипчакского) корня и забывших его.

Аджи Мурад. Тайна святого Георгия, или подаренное Тенгри: Из духовного наследия тюрков.

Аджи Мурад. Европа. Тюрки. Великая Степь. - 1-е изд.

Аджи Мурад. Кипчаки.   Древняя история тюрков и Великой Степи.

Аджи Мурад. Полынь Половецкого поля. – 2-е изд., доп. и перераб.

Аджи Мурад. Кипчаки. Огузы. Средневековая история тюрков и Великой Степи.

Аджи Мурад. Европа. Тюрки. Великая Степь. - 2-е изд.

Аджи Мурад. Тюрки и мир: сокровенная история.

Аджи Мурад. Азиатская Европа.

Аджи Мурад. Дыхание Армагеддона.

Аджи Мурад. Полынь Половецкого поля. – 3-е изд.

Аджи Мурад. Древняя история тюрков и Великой Степи: Книга для школьников и их родителей. – 2-е изд.

Аджи Мурад. Средневековая история тюрков и Великой Степи: Книга для школьников и их родителей. – 2-е изд.

Аджи Мурад. Без Вечного Синего Неба: Очерки нашей истории.

Аджи Мурад. Полынный мой путь. - М., Издательство АСТ, 2014. Тираж 3 000 экз.

Аджи Мурад. Великая степь. Приношение тюрка. - М., Издательство АСТ, 2014. Тираж 2 000 экз.

Аджи Мурад. История тюрков. Такими знали нас. – М., Издательство АСТ. – 317. [3] с.: ил. Тираж 2000 экз. ISBN 978-5-17-087192-6 (ООО «Издательство АСТ»)

Аджи Мурад. Полынь Половецкого поля. – 9-е изд. – М., ООО «Издательство АСТ», 2015. – 404 с.: ил. –(Великие империи) Тираж 2000 экз.

Аджи Мурад. Европа. Тюрки. Великая Степь. – 9-е издание, дополненное и переработанное

Adji Murad. Asia's Europa. Volume 1 (Europe, Turkic, the Great Steppe) (Аджи Мурад. Азиатская Европа.)

Adji Murad. THE KIPCHAKS. Volume 1 (Аджи Мурад. Кипчаки.)

Adji Murad. Asia’s Europa. Volume 2 (The Turki and the World: The Secret Story)

Adji Murad. THE KIPCHAKS and THE OGUZ. Volume 2 (Аджи Мурад. Кипчаки. Огузы.)

Adji Murad. Die Kiptschak. Geschichte des Altertums des Turkvolkes und der GroBen Steppe Ein Buch fur Schulkinder und ihre Eltern. (Кипчаки: Древняя история тюрков и Великой Степи)

Adji Murad. Die Kiptschak, die Oghusen. Das Mittelalter des Turkvolkes und der GroBen Steppe Ein Buch fur Schulkinder und ihre Eltern. (Кипчаки. Огузы: Средневековая история тюрков и Великой Степи)

Adzhi Murad. El secreto de San Jorge o lo regalado por Tengri (de la herencia espiritual del pueblo turcomano) (Тайна святого Георгия или Подаренное Тенгри: из духовного наследия тюрков)

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Kipchak Cuman Christian Turks in Europe and Codex Cumanicus